The 185 times dinner concert
"Esprit of Poulenc"
Performance: Lascara wooden ensemble × Makiaki Maki
Western music history and musicians
The 24th "Giovanni da Palestrina and anti-religious reform"
Minami Aso Luna Observatory · Atelier of the Forest Takashi Miyamoto 2017.10.29
Giovanni da Palestrina (around 1525 - 1594) is an Italian composer of the Renaissance period, born in Palestrina near Rome. At that time, most of the music was occupied by Flemish musicians from North Europe (Flemish music school), the Italian-born church musician finally appeared.
After serving as an organist in the home town of Santa Gapita, he published the first Italian "Mass Music Collection", he took office as Chairman of the Julia Chapel of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome in 1551 year. It was also chosen as a Sistine Chapel singer in 1555 years, but it was dismissed by Pope Paul 4 of the time.
At that time, a storm of religious reform, which originated from the 95 thesis subject that German Martin Luther stuck to the gate of Wittenberg church 1517 year 10 month 31 day, In the middle of being blown away, Protestantism was finally separated from the Catholic Church in 1560 years, and anti-religious reform movement opposing it finally was screaming inside Rome-Catholic. Because Palestrina was already married, clerics violated Catholic doctrine that clerics can not get married.
And, as a result of the Ceremonial Council held between 1545 and 63, while the Catholic internal reforms are progressing, the movement also extends to church music, and the splendid polyphonic music of the Flemish school is not suitable for liturgy , The voice has been increasing even in the Gregorian chant of a single melody.
However, Paula 's 4 world who was a tough Catholic church reformist died soon and Palestrina will return to Chairman Julia Chapel in 1571 year.
Mass tracks composed by Palestrina are responded to the atmosphere and demands of such age by polishing a clear and attractive melody, a warm and soft chord, and an elegant solution of gentle solving of dissonance, while being polyphony I tried to do. In particular, the "Mass of Pope Malchelles" was composed even in order to suppress hardliners of the Council of Trient in order to prove that polyphonic masses suitable for liturgy are also possible, even the legend that it fulfilled its purpose brilliantly I was born as well.
In this way, Palestrina composes the Mass tracks 105 songs, Motetus 250 songs, many religious songs, Madrigals over 100 songs and more. That music was called "Palestrina style", turned away from the trends of the day, kept Gregorian chant and full scale method, kept harmony of lyrics and music, kept the balance between harmony and polyphony, moderate gorgeousness We are aiming to show the solemn beauty that we have.
In this way, Palestrina became a symbolic existence in honor of "the saint of music" and "the rescuer of church music", and that music became a model showing the purity of church music, and it was also remarkable among music history As a being, it had a big influence on Europe in the 16 century.
(2017 year 10 month 31 day which we will have in a few days from today will be just 500 year from the subject of 95 the subject of Martin Luther that had a great influence on the history of music It will be a welcoming milestone.)
See also: Tatsuo Minagawa "Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance", Akio Okada "History of Western Music", Walter Zalmen "Portraits of Musicians 409", etc.